In the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, weight loss refers to a reduction in total body mass caused by a mean loss of fluid, body fat, or lean mass. Weight loss can occur inadvertently as a result of malnourishment or an underlying condition, or it can occur as a result of a purposeful endeavor to better an actual or perceived overweight or obese status. Cachexia is defined as “unexplained” weight loss that is not caused by a reduction in caloric intake or activity and may be an indication of a serious medical condition.
Intentional The decrease of total body mass as a consequence of efforts to enhance fitness and health, or to modify appearance via shrinking, is referred to as intentional weight loss. Obesity is mostly treated by weight loss.
Weight loss in overweight or obese people can minimize health risks and postpone the onset of diabetes. It has the potential to relieve discomfort and promote mobility in persons with knee osteoarthritis. Depression, stress, or boredom can all lead to weight gain, and in these circumstances, people should seek medical attention. According to a 2010 research, dieters who got a full night’s sleep shed more than twice as much weight as those who didn’t. Despite the fact that Although vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial, research does not support this. Over time, the majority of dieters gain weight. Those who acquire and maintain a healthy weight, according to the UK National Health Service and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, do so most successfully by consuming only enough calories to fulfill their needs and being physically active. There is evidence that counseling or exercise alone do not result in substantial long-term weight reduction, but dieting alone results in meaningful long-term weight loss, and a combination of dieting and exercise results in the greatest outcomes. Meal replacements, orlistat, a very low-calorie diet, and intense primary care medical treatments can all help with considerable weight reduction.
Adjustments to eating patterns and increased physical activity, often in the form of exercise, are the least invasive and most commonly suggested weight loss approaches. The World Health Organization suggests combining a reduction in processed meals high in saturated fats, sugar, and salt, as well as a reduction in calorie consumption, with an increase in physical activity. Long-term exercise regimens and anti-obesity drugs both diminish the amount of abdominal fat. Self-monitoring of nutrition, activity, and weight are effective weight reduction measures, especially early in the program. According to research, people who track their diets three times per day and 20 times per month are more likely to lose clinically significant weight.
Weight reduction is determined by sustaining a negative energy balance, not by the macronutrients ingested. Due to improved thermogenesis and satiety, high protein diets have proven better effectiveness in the short term for persons eating ad libitum. Medications Other weight loss treatments include the use of anti-obesity medications that lower hunger, inhibit fat absorption, or reduce stomach volume. Obesity has proven resistant to drug-based treatments, with a 2021 review finding that current drugs “frequently give minimal effectiveness and doubtful safety.” Weight loss surgery In extreme cases of obesity, bariatric surgery may be indicated. Gastric bypass and gastric banding are two typical bariatric surgery techniques. Both can be helpful in limiting dietary energy intake by shrinking the stomach.
There is a sizable market for items that claim to make weight reduction simpler, faster, less expensive, more dependable, or less unpleasant. Books, DVDs, CDs, cremes, lotions, tablets, rings and earrings, body wraps, body belts, and other materials, fitness facilities, clinics, personal trainers, weight reduction organizations, and food items and supplements are examples of these. Despite their widespread usage, dietary supplements are not regarded a healthy alternative for weight loss and lack clinical proof of benefit. Herbal remedies have not been proven to be beneficial. In 2008, the US spent between US$33 billion and $55 billion on weight-loss goods and services, including medical procedures and medications, with weight-loss facilities accounting for 6 to 12 percent of total yearly expenditure. Every year, more than $1.6 billion is spent. supplements. Self-help diets account for over 70% of all dieting efforts in the United States. Because to high attrition rates, the scientific soundness of commercial diets by commercial weight management companies varies greatly. They were formerly non-evidence-based, hence there is very minimal data supporting their usage. In the long run, commercial diets result in moderate weight reduction, with identical effects regardless of brand. Although the data is limited, comprehensive diet regimens that include counseling and calorie consumption objectives are more effective than dieting without supervision. The body mass index is another criteria used to identify very low weight.
Unintentional weight loss can occur as a result of a diet that is insufficiently nutritious in relation to a person’s energy requirements. Unintentional weight loss can be caused by disease processes, changes in metabolism, hormonal changes, drugs or other therapies, illness- or treatment-related dietary changes, or decreased appetite linked with a disease or therapy. Weight loss can result from poor nutrition utilization, which can be caused by fistulae in the gastrointestinal system or diarrhea.
Drug-nutrient interactions, enzyme depletion, and muscular atrophy Symptoms of ACS weight loss include substantial weight loss from muscle rather than body fat, loss of appetite and feeling full after eating little quantities, nausea, anemia, weakness, and exhaustion. In the United Kingdom, up to 5% of the general population is underweight, but more than 10% of people with lung or gastrointestinal problems and who have recently undergone surgery are. Wasting syndrome is an AIDS-related disease. and a variety of other GI issues Infection. Some viral disorders can induce weight loss. Weight loss can be caused by fungal infections, endocarditis, various parasite disorders, AIDS, and several other subacute or occult infections.
Renal failure. Uremia patients frequently report a lack of appetite, vomiting, and nausea. This may result in weight loss. Cardiovascular disease Unexpected weight loss can be caused by cardiovascular illness, particularly congestive heart failure. Disease of the connective tissues Oral, taste, and dental issues might restrict nutritional intake, resulting in weight loss. If a surgery permanently modifies the digestive system, it has a direct impact on nutritional status. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery methods include early post-operative feeding. Carbohydrate loading is also included in these procedures.
However, prior dietary treatments have not been found to have a meaningful influence. Culture, family, and religious systems may all have an impact on nutrient consumption. They also mentioned that the issue of altering one’s metabolic rate is being debated. Health Consequences Obesity raises the risk of a variety of health problems, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, to mention a few. Obesity reduction reduces these hazards. A 1-kg fall in body weight has been linked to a 1-mm Hg drop in blood pressure. In overweight and obese people, intentional weight loss is connected with improved cognitive function.